Some chemicals with similar properties have been grouped into chemical functions.
Chemical function - set of compounds with similar chemical properties.
Inorganic substances fall into four major groups, which are known as the functions of inorganic chemistry. They are: acids, bases, oxides and salts. There are also organic functions, which are hydrocarbons, alcohols, ketones, aldehydes, ethers, esters, carboxylic acids, amines and amides.
Acid is any substance that produces water in H + cation. When an acid comes into contact with water, it ionizes and releases H +. Examples:
HCl + H2O → H+ + Cl-
HF + H2O → H+ + F-
H2ONLY4 → H+ + SO2-
An acid is identified with the presence of an H + on the left side of the formula. The main characteristics of acids are:
- sour taste (generally toxic and corrosive);
- conduct electricity in aqueous solution (in water);
- change the color of certain substances (acid-base indicators, which are organic substances);
- react based on salt and water.
- sulfuric acid (H2ONLY4) - most widely used chemical in industry, so sulfuric acid consumption measures the industrial development of a country. It is corrosive and very soluble in water. It is used in car batteries, in the production of fertilizers, organic compounds, in the cleaning of metals and alloys (steel).
Hydrochloric acid (HCl) - is one of the components of gastric juice in our stomach. Pure HCl is a very corrosive and toxic gas. HCl in aqueous solution is suffocating and corrosive. It is used for cleaning stone and tile floors and walls. Muriatic acid is impure hydrochloric acid.
- Hydrofluoric acid (HF) - is used for the production of aluminum, glass corrosion (in cars), decoration on glass objects. It is highly corrosive to the skin.
- nitric acid (HNO)3) - toxic and corrosive acid. Used in the production of fertilizers and organic compounds.